III. TRADE-RELATED ORGANIZATIONS
Labor Advisory Committee (LAC). A policy-level committee that forms part
of the private sector advisory system established by Congress
to ensure that US trade policy and negotiating objectives reflect
US commercial and economic interests. The LAC provides advice
on labor issues related to bilateral and multilateral trade
negotiations. The roughly 100 LAC members, representing the
range of organized labor in the United States, are appointed
by the USTR in conjunction with the Secretary of Labor.
Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
or Asociacion Latino Americana de Integracion (ALADI). A regional
cooperation organization and preferential arrangement including
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico,
Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. LAIA was established
by the Montevideo Treaty of 1980; it superseded the Latin American
Free Trade Area (LAFI' A), which was abandoned largely because
of inflexible rules governing the integration process.
Mano River Union (MRU). A customs union including Guinea, Liberia,
and Sierra ,. Leone. It was founded in 1973 as a bilateral agreement
between Liberia and Sierra Leone; Guinea joined in 1980. Objectives
include trade expansion through elimination of tariffs on intra-group
trade; economic integration; and sectoral cooperative programs.
A common external tariff has been in effect since 1977. Duty-free
treatment is provided for goods with at least 35 percent local
content, but little progress has been made in reducing non-tariff
barriers. Policy coordination is currently suspended due to
the civil war in Liberia.
Matignon or Hotel Matignon. The office of France's Prime Minister.
MERCOSUR. See Southern Common Market.
MITI. Japan's Ministry of International Trade
and Industry, responsible for international trade policy (including
trade finance and export insurance) as well as various industrial
policies of Japan. The MITI acronym is also used by various
countries in addition to Japan.
MOF. Ministry of Finance (various countries).
MOFA. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (various countries).
MOFERT. China's ministry of foreign economic relations
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency.
An independent agency of the World Bank group
established in 1988 to guarantee eligible investments against
non-commercial losses. Its current membership includes 9 developed
countries and 20 LDCs.
Multilateral Trade Organization (MTO). A proposed organization that would subsume
the GAIT, the
General Agreement on Trade in Services, and any organizational arrangement needed to implement an agreement
dealing with intellectual property rights upon conclusion of the Uruguay Round
negotiations (see Sec. I).
National Association of Manufacturers
An organization representing US industry views on national and
international economic issues, including trade, international
finance and investment, and multinational corporations. NAM
also reviews and responds on legislation, administrative rulings,
and judicial decisions affecting US industry. It is based in
National Bureau of Economic Research
A private, nonprofit organization engaged in quantitative analysis
of US domestic and international economic issues. NBER-sponsored
studies and conferences generally involve leading economists
from US universities. It is based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
National Economic Council (NEC). The NEC was established at the outset of
the Clinton Administration to coordinate US domestic and international
economic policies. Chaired by the President, the NEC is composed
of the Vice President, the Secretaries of State, Treasury, Commerce,
Agriculture, Labor, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation,
and Energy , the Administrator of the Environmental Protection
Agency, the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Director
of the Office of Management and Budget, the US Trade Representative,
the National Security Advisor, and the Assistants to the President
for Economic Policy, Domestic Policy, and Science and Technology
Policy. All executive departments and agencies --whether or
not represented on the NEC --coordinate economic policy through
the Council. The NEC Deputies Committee considers decision memoranda
from the TPRG as well as particularly important or controversial
trade-related issues, and thus serves as the highest- level
group in the interagency mechanism for developing and coordinating
US policies on international trade and trade-related investment
National Foreign Trade Council. An organization of US companies engaged
in international trade and investment, based in Washington,
DC. The Council advocates open international trade, export expansion,
and policies to assist US companies competing in world markets.
National Institute of Economic and Social
privately funded British ..research institute specializing in
macroeconomic issues, industrial productivity, and comparative
National Planning Association. A private, nonprofit organization specializing
in research and economic policy formulation through joint efforts
by representatives of US business, labor, and agriculture groups,
as well as the applied and academic professions, serving on
NP A policy committees. Research and writing for the committees
are provided by the NP A's professional staff as well as outside
experts. It is based in Washington, DC.
Nikkeiren. Japan's employers' federation, roughly equivalent
to the US National Association of Manufacturers. See also Keidanren.
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs). Refers to transnational organizations of
private parties, including professional associations, foundations,
multinational businesses, or other groups with a common interest
in a particular policy issue. Organizations with NGO status
are permitted to send observers and submit written statements
to meetings of the UN Economic and Social Council on the basis
of their technical knowledge or special experience.
Nordic Regional Cooperation (Nordic Group
regional cooperation organization including Denmark, Finland,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Objectives include coordination
of economic, trade, environmental, and social policies; and
cooperation on relations with outside countries and multilateral
organizations. It was established by the Helsinki Convention
of 1962. An inter-parliamentary group functions as the Nordic
Council, headquartered in Stockholm. Prime Ministers of the
Nordic countries decided in October 1992 to establish a rotating
presidency on the EC model in an effort to increase Nordic influence
within the EEA. Institutional
mechanisms for trade policy coordination among members are well
established; members have been generally ..successful in harmonizing
policies and establishing cohesion for participation as a group
in GATT consultations and negotiations.
One-Thirteen Committee (113 Committee).
The central organization in the trade policymaking Structure
of the European Community. The Committee is comprised of 12 member-state
delegates and one from the EC Commission, and is the primary link between the Commission
and member states on trade issues. The 113 Committee assists
the Commission in defining and implementing the Community's
commercial policy, including tariff rates, export policies,
and measures to liberalize trade or-protect EC industries. While
the Commission usually acts as the policy initiator and primary
trade negotiator with non-EC countries, it works closely with
the 113 Committee --taking into account various national interests
--in order to ensure eventual approval of its draft agreements.
Each member state appoints its own representatives to the 113
Committee; the senior delegates are called "titulaires,"
and are backed by deputies. As the main Committee members, the
titulaires are the key trade policymakers in their respective
governments, holding positions (usually as career civil servants)
roughly equivalent to a US Assistant or Under Secretary. The
113 Committee deputies --primarily counselor- level officials
from the member states' permanent missions to the Community
--work out the mechanics of trade proposals and participate
in various subcommittees devoted to specific issues, often joined
by working-level experts from their capitals. The number of
attendees at the Committee's monthly meetings can reach 50,
including advisers and staffers. The Chair of the 113 Committee
rotates every six 11'1onths and is held by the member state
currently serving as EC president. The Committee takes its name
from Article 113 of the Treaty of Rome (Sec.l).
Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD).
An international organization headquartered in Paris that serves
as a forum for discussion of trade and other economic and social
issues confronting the industrial market economies. The OECD
was established in 1960 as successor to the OEEC, the organization
originally set up to assist European postwar economic recovery
under the Marshall Plan. OECD periodically publishes surveys
of member countries' economic performance and prospects --as
well as the semi-annual Economic Outlook covering the
entire industrialized world --and is the principal source of
comparative data on the industrial economies. OECD publications
cover a wide range of issues including trade, banking and financial
markets, employment, social policies, the environment, agriculture,
energy , industry , development aid, science and technology
, R&D, nation, education, and transportation. The member
countries use the OECD and its various committees and working
groups to conduct both studies and negotiations on particular
economic, financial, and trade issues; among the key OECD committee~
dealing with such issues are:
* Economic Policy Committee o Trade Committee
* Industry Committee
* Agriculture Committee
* Environment Policy Committee
* Competition Law and Policy Committee o
Development Assistance Committee
* Committee on International Investment
and Multinational Enterprises
* Committee on Capital Movements and International
The OECD Secretariat comprises about 600
economists, statisticians, and analysts -- together with some
1,300 other personnel --to support meetings and conferences
and prepare documentation and publications. The Secretariat
also calls on established scholars in various fields to participate
as consultants in the work of the Organization. The Secretariat
is divided into specialized Directorates, corresponding roughly
to the principal Committees. Several autonomous and semi-autonomous
bodies have been set up within the OECD framework, each with
its own governing committee. These are:
* International Energy Agency o Nuclear
Energy Agency o Development Center o Club du Sahel
* Center for Educational Research and Innovation.
In addition, a Center for Cooperation with
the European Economies in Transition was established in 1990
to coordinate OECD work with the Central and East European
Countries. Common analysis of issues in the OECD is
sometimes instrumental in forging a consensus among industrial
countries to pursue certain negotiating goals in the GATT and
other international fora. Each of the member countries maintains
a permanent delegation to OECD, headed by an ambassador who
attends weekly meetings of the OECD Council, chaired by the
Secretary-General. Each year in late Mayor early June, the Council
meets at the Ministerial level, under the chairmanship of one
or more ministers from the member country elected annually to
this function. The member countries are Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New
Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,
the United Kingdom, and the United States (in addition, the
EC Commission usually
participates in OECD activities). In June 1993, the OECD Council
formally initiated the process of examining terms and conditions
of accession for Mexico.
Organization of East Caribbean States
A customs union including Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada,
Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent
and the Grenadines. It was founded in 1981 as a sub regional
group of CARlCOM. Only
Dominica and St. Vincent have implemented the OECS common external
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
A producer cartel comprising 13 leading oil-producing countries
that seek to coordinate oil production and pricing policies.
Members include Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab
Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC was established in September 1960
and is headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
Overseas Development Council (ODC). A research and educational organization
that encourages review of US policies toward developing countries
by the business community, educators, policymakers, and journalists.
It is based in Washington, DC.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation
An agency of the US government established in 1971 to promote
private investment in overseas projects, especially in developing
countries. OPIC provides start-up assistance as well as direct
loans and loan guarantees for equity participation in foreign
ventures, but its primary activity is insuring against losses
sustained by US investors in foreign equity ventures as the
result of political risks (Sec. 11).
OPIC services are available only to US citizens and US- controlled
Pacific Basic Economic Council (PBEC). A consultative grouping comprising government
and private-sector representatives from Australia, Brunei, Canada,
Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico,
New Zealand, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea,
Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. PBEC was founded in
1984 for the purpose of consultation and cooperation on a broad
range of economic and trade-related policies. PBEC has held
annual conferences and working groups have been operating since
1984. A permanent secretariat was established 1990 in Singapore.
Pancafe. The trading arm of the International
Paris Club. An informal designation for meetings between
representatives of a .developing country that wishes to renegotiate
its official debt (normally excluding debts owned by and to
the private sector without official guarantees) and representatives
of the relevant creditor governments and international institutions.
The meetings are traditionally chaired by a senior official
of the French Treasury .Comparable meetings occasionally take
place in London and in New York for countries that wish to renegotiate
repayment terms for their debts to private banks; such meetings
are sometimes called "creditors clubs".
Paris Union. The organization of signatory states to
the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
Patronat (Conseil National du Patronat
Francais, or CNPF).
France's employers' council, roughly equivalent to the US National
Association of Manufacturers.
Pentagonal Group. See Central European Initiative.
Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and
Southern Africa (PTA).
A preferential arrangement and eventual common market including
Angola, Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho,
Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland,
Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, founded in 1982. Objectives
include commercial and economic cooperation, harmonization of
policies; elimination of tariffs on all goods traded within
region by 2000, and reduction of non-tariff barriers; removal
of foreign exchange constraints in intra-regional trade; and
cooperation in agriculture. Some tariffs have been reduced on
a limited range of products; a common list of goods receiving
preferential rates is in effect. Restrictive rules of origin
and value-added criteria have reduced coverage of intra-group
Quai d'Orsay. France's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.